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Текст 1

Fluent? Expanding Translators' Market a Good Bet
by V.Korchagina (From "The Moscow Times»)

     In a job market where the dis­crepancy between an applicant's education and the requirements of available jobs has grown ever wider — where a ballet dancer works as a journalist and an aerospace engi­neer as a chauffeur — finding a well-paid position that suits you can be a real challenge.
     One expanding market for people trained in a variety of disciplines is in translating and interpreting, where, according to translation agencies, knowledge of a foreign language can bring in up to $2,000 per month or provide a convenient way to earn some extra money in your spare time.
     The majority of trained translators in Moscow have .-graduated from a special language institute, either indepen­dent — like Moscow's Linguistic University — or attached to another university.
     However, most employers and translation agencies say that neither formal qualifications nor previous experience is essential in this field: demonstrable fluency in a foreign lan­guage is often the most important skill.
     While some employers advertise directly for full-time translating positions, many translators, and interpreters work through agencies, which provide those on their books with regular assignments. Agencies will give candidates an inter­view — normally with a native speaker — and a written test of their language skills. Translators who are fluent in more than one foreign language usually find it easier to get work.
Translation work is divided into two main categories — interpreting and written translation — and most employers contacted for this article said that few people work in both fields. .As Olga Tsipilyova, from the Russian translation agency I.B.S. Translation & Interpreting, Moscow, pointed out, some of the best written translators cannot actually speak the languages from which they translate, although they can render them accurately on the page.
     Of the two skills, more people are capable of written translation than interpreting, translation agencies say. While tlie financial rewards can be greater for interpreting, written translation affords a rare opportunity to make money without leaving home and at your own pace.
     As a rule, translators work from a foreign language into their native tongue. If not, in most agencies the translation will be edited by a native speaker.
     Agencies also provide their translators with style books that contain standards for various types of documents, from scien­tific texts to user's manuals.
     According to Tsipilyova, most translators also specialize in a particular field, like medicine or law.
     Most agencies contacted said that income from written translation can vary from $3 to $15 per page depending on the complexity of the original document, the quality of the transla­tion and the amount of editing required after submission.
     With interpreting, the most important quality is to be able to speak quickly enough for maximum comprehension, accord­ing to translation agencies.
     By contrast with the rather solitary pursuit of written translation, «people skills* are an essential part of this job — getting along with people and being able to communicate. This is especially true in business, since an interpreter to some extent assumes the role of his client's representative: A good impression can go a long way toward closing a deal. People who have studied or lived abroad are frequently con­sidered better suited for interpreting work because of their broader life experience and understanding of foreign cultures.
Interpreters are usually paid on an hourly or daily basic. Most translation agencies quoted an average rate of $10 per hour.
While the money in translation work is generally good, anyone considering entering the field should keep a few things in mind about the downside.
     It can be difficult working with other people's words all day, not to mention tackling a dry manual on maintaining a new refrigerator or repairing the suspension of a combine har­vester.
     Nor are you likely to be asked your opinion on the ongo­ing negotiations between firm A and company B, no matter how well informed you might be.
     A translator has to be «easy to get on with and ready to sacrifice his own interests for the benefit of the work*, said Yelena Kolesnikova, translation coordinator for Interfax news agency, which employs about 20 translators — mostly for­eigners — to translate its wire service stories.
     But if working behind the scenes or playing second fiddle in order to earn some good money is not too high a price for you to pay, translation could be for you.
     As a representative of the Alphabet Service, Ltd., transla­tion service said, «To be a translator or interpreter, you have to love the job. This is the most important condition of suc­cess. No matter how sound your knowledge of the language might be, you have to like the job or it will not come off».

1) discrepancy — зд. несоответствие;
2) formal qualification — зд. диплом, формаль­ное образование;
3) demonstrable fluency — зд. умение показать беглое аладение языком;
4) those on their book — в штате;
5) style book — сборник образцов, «подборки»;
6) user's manuals — инструкции;
7) solitary pursuit — уединенный труд;
8) getting along with people = people skills — уме­ние ладить с людьми;
9) go a long way toward closing a deal — способ­ствовать заключению сделки;
10) tackling — зд. работа над;
11) suspension of a combine harvester — подвески зерноуборочного комбайна.

( А.Чужакин, П.Палажченко «Мир перевода»)

Текст 2

Breaking the language barrier

(The aversion of British companies to foreign languages is costing them   dearly, says Jane Martinson.)   
     At a recent business dinner a chief executive  was extolling the export achievements of his UK support services group. When China was mentioned, with regard to business, he looked askance at the very word.  «God no», he said. «They don t even try to speak the language there».
     Although there is some evidence of a growing awareness 'among UK. companies of the importance of understanding fother languages, their linguistic prowess still lags far behind that of European competitors.
     Stephen Hagen, languages professor at the University of Wolverhampton and adviser to the UK's Department1 of Trade and Industry (DTI), says, compared with its European part­ners, the UK is «the bottom of the pile of language ability».
     Professor Hagen believes Europe's linguistic and cultural barriers are proving harder to break down than trade blocks. «There is a legal framework to enable us to export easily», he says. «The only thing that's preventing us from going further is that we don't have the cultural and linguistic competence to cope».
     A European Union-funded survey of exporters, conducted in July, suggests that 49 per cent of companies have experi­enced language barriers. The survey of firms with up to 500 employees found a further 20 per cent which had encoun­tered cultural barriers and 12 per cent which had lost business because of these barriers.
     The survey also found thalf only -4 3 per cent of the com­panies had formulated any languages strategy to deal with the problem. Most — 83 per cent — used translators.
     Several studies concur in the growing importance of cul­tural competence. Professor Hagen says, «When you ask ex­porters whether they need to learn German, they say no. When you ask whether they need to understand how the German mind works, they all say yes». The problem is that «in this country we don't link languages with culture enough». However, there is evidence of improvement. With 60 per cent of the UK's exports going to non-English speaking countries, Robert Holkham, at the UK Department of Trade says: «there is a growing awareness that learning a customer's language and culture increases the chance of doing business
     A benchmark survey of 500 small to medium-sized com­panies conducted by the DTI in each of the past three years has found that while 34 per cent said they had no language proficiency two years ago, the figure had dropped to 30 percent in 1996.
     The campaign highlights the kinds of problems commu­nication difficulties can cause. These range from the tale of re­ceivers finding a large order written in German left unread in a collapsed company in the UK , to the non-English airline which boasted that it would «send your luggage in all directions».
     Studies suggest linguistic proficiency is related to company size, with those employing fewer than 250 suffering the most problems. Companies less than five years old with young managing directors are also more likely to employ linguists.
     Many in the industry feel they have an uphill task. John Fergusson at the Association for Language Learning, says that with English considered a world language «there's a feeling that one doesn't need to put oneself out too much».
     He puts part of the blame on an education system which, until recently, made just three years of language training compulsory until the age of 14.
     He believes that the national curriculum,' adopted in Eng­land and Wales in 1988, will improve matters, but only gradu­ally. He also feels it did not go far enough — it should intro­duce language learning in primary schools, he said.
     Professor Hagen says this is not «just a question about how Fred Bloggs sells apples into France». The meetings be­tween European political leaders are indicative, he says. «The UK representative is always out on a limb, talking even to the Irish person».

1) to extoll = to praise, boast of;
2) support services group — зд. consulting firm;
3) to look askance — смотреть искоса; зд, скри­вился, сделал гримасу;
4) awareness — зд. сознание;
5) prowess = proficiency, skills (навыки);
6) lags far behind — далеко отстает от ... ;
7) lost business — зд. потеряли выгодные сделки;
8) concur in — зд. указывают на ... ;
9) benchmark survey—  рейтинговое исследование;
10) receivers — зд. судебные исполнители (ср.to go into receivership = to go bankrupt); in collapsed = bankrupt, ruined;
12) uphill = very difficult.

1 an  allusion to  a  widely-publicised  story of  a U K company which  could  have  been  saved  from  bankruptcy  by a huge  order  which  remained  unan­swered  as  no  one  in  the  firm  knew  foreign  languages.

( А.Чужакин, П.Палажченко «Мир перевода»)


Текст 3

Interpreting: Perils of Palaver
by Barry James

     Paris — When a Japanese sucks in his breath and tells a Westerner that «your proposal is very interesting and we will consider it carefully» — meaning, in a word, «no!» — what is the honest interpreter to say?
     The answer is that the professional interpreter is duty bound to report the words of the Japanese as faithfully as possible. But according to Gisela Siebourg, who regularly interprets for Chancellor Kohl of Germany, it would also be legitimate for the interpreter to draw his or her client aside after the conver­sation and explain the complexities of Japanese double-speak.
     It would depend on the degree of trust between client and interpreter, she said.
     This illustrates the need for the interpreter to be taken into the client's confidence, Siebourg said. It also indicates the qualities required of an interpreter — the discretion of a priest in the confessional and the mental subtlety of a professional diplomat. Rule number one for the interpreter, she said, is never to repeat outside a meeting what was learned in it.
     Siebourg is president of the International Association of Conference Interpreters — set up in Paris in 1953 with 60 members, and now including 2,200 members — which is holding its triannual assembly here this week.
     The association, which has worked since its inception to raise the standing of the interpreters' calling, thinks a lot about such ethical issues, as well as seeking better working conditions for its members.
     The profession is at least as old as the Book of Genesis in which Joseph outwitted his brothers by, as the book says, speaking «into them by an interpreter». But the modern prac­tice of simultaneous interpretation through headphones dates only from the postwar Nuremberg trials and the formation of the United Nations.
     Before that, even in the League of Nations, speakers had to pause at intervals to allow the interpretation — a process known as consecutive interpretation. This is still the method most often used in tete-a-tete conversations.
     The method is not suitable for large modern conferences at which several languages are used simultaneously.
     Interpreting often is, but ought not to be, confused with translating. The translator has time and a battery of dictionaries at his or her command in order to find the precise word fhe interpreter, by contrast, has to get across the right meaning rather than the exact wording without a second's hesitation. This often requires a deep knowledge of culture as well as language, an ability to understand expression as well as content.
     Diplomats such as Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz1 of Iraq, who speaks excellent English, often work through interpreters either to conceal precise meaning or to give themselves time I to think. In such cases, the interpreter must be careful not  to go beyond the speakers'words, even if they make apparently little sense. As Confucius put it, «If language is not in accor­dance with the truth of things, affairs cannot be carried on to success».
     Being used as part of a negotiating ploy again points to the need for the interpreter to be taken into the diplomat's confi­dence. The interpreters association always tells clients that «if you are not prepared to trust an  interpreter with confidential information, don't use one». The failure to provide in ad­vance background information and specialized terminology involved in complex negotiations makes the interpreters' job all the more difficult, Siebourg said.
     Several years ago the association — speaking either in English or French, its two working languages —started discuss­ing improved contacts with colleagues in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe when the East was opening up. One difficulty is that the East .European languages often contain no terminology to describe many of the private market terms used in the West.
     Russian interpreters also have practice of working from their own language into a foreign language, while most West­ern interpreters, Siebourg said, prefer to work from a foreign language into their mother tongue.
     This avoids the kind of gaffes that can occur with less than intimate knowledge of a language. When Jimmy Carter visited Warsaw in December 1977, for example, he made the mistake of using a Polish-speaking American as interpreter rather than an English-speaking Pole, Siebourg said.
     The result is that the interpreter, a State Department contract empoyee, spoke about sexual lust rather than desire and rephrased Carter's «when I abandoned the United States». The embarrassment was long remembered.

1 now Deputy Prime Minister.


1) sucks in his breath — втягивает дыхание;
2) duty bound = obliged;
3) draw aside — отвести в сторону;
4) double-speak —  зд. что имеется в виду (см.«1984»by G.Orwell);
5) to be taken into confidence — завоевать дове­рие;
6) discretion of a priest in the confessional — такт исповедника;
7) mental subtlety — тонкость ума;
8) raise the standing of the calling — зд. поднять престиж профессии;
9) Book of Genesis — книга Бытия (Библия);
10) outwitted — перехитрил;
11) get across — передать;
13) expression as well as content — зд. форму и содержание;
14) ploy — уловка (ср. .ловушка);
15) opening up — зд. расширяют связи;
16) gaffe — «прокол», «накладка», «ляп»;
1 7) lust — похоть (cp. desire);
18) abandoned — покинул, бросил (cp. left).

Topics for discussion:
Do you agree with all the ideas concerning interpreter's ethics? What are the interpreter's main qualities? Do you share the point of view expressed in the text?

( А.Чужакин, П.Палажченко «Мир перевода»)

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